Hepatotoxicity Side Effects Of Nutritional Supplements!

This study ascertained the Possible Hepatotoxicity of Paraquat Dichloride (PQ). And ameliorative impact of chosen supplements nutritional supplements. Male wistar albino rats were intraperitoneally administer sub-lethal concentration of Paraquat dichloride (1.5 mg/kg body fat ). At alternative days and concomitantly treated every day with supplements (glutathione, vitamin C and C ) for 2 weeks.

Abstract Hepatotoxicity:

Antioxidant capability, malondialdehyde, and glutathione concentrations. The effect obtained revealed that PQ administration induced elevations of AST, ALT and ALP activities. Increase in serum bilirubin, and important reduction albumin, indicating hepatic dysfunction. Substantial growth in lipid peroxidation productmalondialdehyde (MDA), and decline in glutathione concentration. Overall antioxidant capacity affirms the possibility of PQ to cause cognitive hepatic damage. On the other hand, the results demonstrated that oral administration of vitamin C. And garlic have been powerful in the defense against paraquat caused, toxicity.

The mode of toxic action of PQ and the Impact of vitamin C. Garlic and glutathione in preventing or diminishing these poisonous effects were It’s concluded that vitamin C. And C May Be an Important antioxidant in the treatment of PQ induced toxicity.

 

Hepatotoxicity

 

Keywords:

 

Paraquat dichloride; Toxicity; Vitamin C; Garlic; Liver purpose; Oxidative stress.

 

Introduction Of Hepatotoxicity:

 

It’s used extensively in agricultural practice globally and is emerging quickly from Nigerian’s agricultural sector. Paraquat isn’t only poisonous to crops but negatively affect individual and farm animals [1,2 ]. By collecting in the lungs, liver, heart and kidneys. Animal vulnerability occurs by deliberate or accidental swallowing, or via ruined skin or inhalation. Studies on paraquat toxicity have demonstrated that chronic exposure may result in liver and lung damage. Kidney failure, and Parkinsonian lesions along with fibrosis [3,4].

 

Paraquat toxicity happens through excessive production of free radicals which leads to oxidative stress and harm [5,6]. This toxicity originates in the redox cycle which creates superoxide radical (O2•–). Which cascades into the creation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical (HO–). Oxidative stress can harm molecular arrangements, cell function, and can be implicated in several pathological scenarios. But, adverse effect of free radicals may be fixed from the body’s natural immune mechanisms or antioxidants consumed in the diet.

 

Garlic (Allium sativum) is a significant food flavour and can be used in herbal remedies [7]. Garlic is a good source of selenium, iodine, arginine, Vitamin C and B6 [8], allicin, Sallylcysteine, and allylcysteine. Allicin is a organosulfur compound, shaky and quickly changes to a collection of additional sulfur-containing. Chemicals like Diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl trisulfide (DAT), and DAS, disulfide derivatives (DADS) etc. [9].

Allyl disulfide protects cells from microsomal lipid peroxidation, allylcysteine are significant hydroxyl radical (•OH). And peroxyl radical (ROO•) scavengers, and allicin can scavenge hydroxyl radicals and protect against lipid peroxidation.

Garlic organo sulfides parts (DAS, DADS and DAT). Were proven to play with a differential modulatory function in the GSH related anti-oxidant. Futher more, garlic organo sulfides DAS, DADS, DPS (dipropyl sulfide). And DPDS (dipropyl disulfide) induces the expression of NAD(P)H.

Materials and Techniques:

Experimental Layout.

Rats were placed in metal cages lined with sawdust. In a properly ventilated animal home at 24 ± 3°C at a 12 hour light/dark cycle. During the 1 week period of acclimatization that the rat had been permitted free access to water and rat chow. The analysis was first considered and approved by the Treaty of Biochemistry Department. Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria and has been completed. According to the federal and institutional guidelines for protection of human subjects and animal welfare. After acclimatization, the rats (140-160 g) were divided into six groups of six rats each in metal cages.

Regular Paraquat management (PQ), Vitamin C (VC), Garlic (GC) Glutathione (GS) and Synergy (SYN) groups. Obtained 1.5 mg/kg of body fat of paraquat dichloride intraperitoneally each other day. All classes (except NC) was treated orally with 40 mg/kg body fat of Vitamin C. Garlic and Glutathione supplements every day while SYN group obtained 40 mg/kg body fat of Vitamin C. Glutathione and Garlic (VGG) remedies in the ratio of 1:1:1 daily for 2 weeks. All rats were allowed free access to rat chow and wash water and no passing was listed during.

Sample collection:

Blood samples Were gathered by ocular puncture into test tubes and permitted to stand for 30 Minutes. To clot and then centrifuged at three thousand × g for 15 minutes to get serum. After sample set the rats were sacrificed and liver had been Excised rinsed completely in ice cold saline. Liver sample was homogenized in KCl buffer (1.15 percent ) at EDTA at pH 7.4 and centrifuged for 20 minutes at 250 × g.

Aliquots of supernatant in the homogenate was used to assay oxidative stress parameters. Some parts of liver sample had been saved in 0.3% formaldehyde for histopathology.

Determination Of liver function parameters:

 

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were assayed by the method. According to Reitman and Frankel using commercial kits supplied by Bio Merieux France.

The procedure described by Rec was utilized to ascertain alkaline. Phosphatase (ALP) activity using commercial kits supplied by Bio Merieux France. The procedure of Jendrassik and Grof was utilized to determine total bilirubin. Total protein and albumin were determined as described by Tietz et al and Doumas et al.respectively.

Determination Of liver lipid peroxidation:

To quantify lipid peroxidation, Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, the final product of lipid peroxidation has been determined. Malondialdehyde was decided by the procedure described by Wallin et al.

Briefly; four test tubes were set up and to those capsules. 0.1 ml of sample, 0.9 ml of distilled water, 0.5 ml of 25% trichloroacetic acid (TCA). And 0.5 ml of 17 percent TBA at 0.3 percent NaOH were pipetted. The installation has been incubated at 95°C for 40 minutes and then cooled. Finally, 0.1 ml of 20 % sodium dodecyl sulphate was added. Absorbance of the mixture measured at 532 nm and 600 nm against a blank.

Determination of glutathione:

The concentration of Glutathione was determined by the procedure described by Raja et al [27]. Briefly protein has been separated in the sample by mixing 1 tsp sample homogenate using 4 ml of 10 percent. Trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min. Then 0.01 ml of the supernatant was pipette to a tube.

Containing 2 ml of phosphate buffer (pH distilled water. The installation has been mixed vigorously and absorbance shot at 412 nm In spectrophotometer in 15 min.

Determination Of total antioxidant ability:

Total antioxidant action was estimated by Ferric reducing capability of cellular (FRAP) system by Benzie and Strain. Briefly originally, a functioning reagent containing acetate buffer (pH 3.6). Ferric chloride and tripyridyltriazine at the ratio of 10:1:1 respectively was ready. To 60 μl of sample or standard or sterile in a clean test tube, 1.8 ml of working reagent has been added.

The reaction mixture mixed thoroughly and incubated at 38°C for 10 minutes. The resulting blue colored solution created was then read in 593 nm. The clean was treated exactly the same manner except that 60 μl of distilled water was added rather than plasma. The standard solution comprises 1000 μmol/l of ferrous sulphate.

Histological studies:

Samples of liver have been fixed With appropriate saline and exposed to dehydration. Clearing (de-alcoholisation), infiltration and embedded in paraffin according to Okoro with slight alterations.

Samples were serially sectioned at an proper depth and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Further, the tissue sections were analyzed using light microscope at a magnification of 100x and 400x.

Statistical analysis:

Results were express as mean and standard deviation (mean ± standard deviation) and determined for all of the parameters. The data were examined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS program. Version 18, followed by Duncan (Multiple Range-test).

Results

Liver Function receptor actions:

Hepatic toxicity has been evaluated By discovering serum ALT, AST, and ALP activities as biomarkers of liver damage. This is introduced in Figure 1, together with paraquat control demonstrating substantial gain in the activities of ALP. ALT and AST compared to regular control.

Moreover, actions of the liver enzymes decreased considerably in groups exposed to paraquat. And treated concomitantly with vitamin C, potassium, and garlic independently, and mixture of vitamin C. +Garlic (VGG) supplements reviewed side effects to paraquat control.

Conclusion:

The findings of the study indicates that exposure to the herbicide paraquat dichloride can initiate oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation and liver damage. Additionally the concomitant administration of vitamin C, vitamin C and glutathione. May be a helpful in attenuating the oxidative induced damage in sensitive organs.

Conflict of Interest:

This search did not received any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

References:

  1. Abd El Kader MA, Fyiad AA, Soliman MS (2006) protective Function of aqueous garlic extract on para quatinduced lung injury In rats. J Biomed Sci 20: 125-136.
  2. Ahmed MM (2010) Radio along with chemo protective Properties of hesperidin from genotoxicity. Caused by gamma radiation or paraquat in rat bone marrow cells. J Rad Sci Applic 23: 233-244.
  3. Tanner CM, Kamel F, Ross GW, Hoppin JA, Goldman SM, et al. (2011) Rotenone, paraquat, and Parkinson’s disease. Environ Hlth Perspect 119: 866-872.
  4. He X, Wang L, Szklarz G, Bi Y, Ma Q (2012) Resveratrol inhibits paraquat- induced oxidative stress and fibrogenic. Response by triggering the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related variable 2 pathway. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 342: 81-90.
  5. Hafez AM (2009) Antigenotoxic action of melatonin and selenium from genetic damage caused by paraquat. Aust J Basic & Appl Sci 3: 2130-2143.
  6. Meng XX, Wang RL, Gao S (2013) Impact of ulinastatin On paraquat-induce doxidative pressure in human type II alveolar epithelial cells. World J Emerg Med 4: 133-137.
  7. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (2012) Garlic (”Allium sativum” L.) National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health.
  8. Ujowundu CO, Kalu FN, Nwosunjoku EC (2011) Iodine and And inorganic mineral contents of several veggies, fruits and grains Absorbed in Southeastern Nigeria.
  9. Borlinghaus J, Albrecht F, Gruhlke MC, Nwachukwu ID, Slusarenko AJ (2014) Allicin: Chemistry and biological properties. Molecules. 19: 12591-12618.

About D.r Dina Balabanova

I am an Associate Professor in Health Systems & Policy in the Department of Global Health and Development, with over 20 years of experience in health systems and policy research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). My main expertise is in health systems governance, institution building and effective delivery models.

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